30 de octubre de 2017

ENTRY #14 Final Reflection

ENTRY #13 Reflection On My Writing Improvements.

ENTRY #12 Videos


In this video the inspector exclaims that he needs to acquire a perfect English pronunciation in order to avoid suspicion. “I am going to America, I am going to have to speak with a flawless American accent, so as not to arouse suspicion.” In this case, we can apply the concept of Idiolect in which people tend to sound like others with whom they share similar educational backgrounds and/or occupations. Moreover, we all speak with an accent and the term “accent” is restricted to the description of aspects of pronunciation that identify where an individual speaker is from, regionally or socially. In this video, the accent required is the one that many people use in America.


Sources:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=uvpikUEIaLI
Yule, G. (2016). The Study of Language. UK.: CUP. Ch. 18, 19. Pages 240 and 255.



The term dialect is used to describe features of grammar and vocabulary as well as aspects of pronunciation and in this sketch there are some examples like differences in the use of grammar, in other words, grammar mistakes for example “She has some problems mixing metaphors, aren’t she?”; or related to vocabulary such as “It’s alright for you all, I’ve got a very small vocabulary.”. Also, in this sketch we can distinguish the concept of slang that is used among these students, this slang or “colloquial speech” is used in everyday terms among young people and groups with special interests such as the fact that they attend to the same English class. They speak in a way that is hard to understand for another people but they seem to get the meaning across during the conversation quite well.

Sources:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=cBzIqpQ8c9U
Yule, G. (2016). the Study of Language. UK.: CUP. CH. 18, 19. Pages 240 and 259.



In this video, there are some soldiers from Iraq that are interviewed by an American journalist. One of the soldier is upset because while he was talking, re realized that his words had been translated on the screen, even though he had studied English in the American University in Cairo, his Iraqi accent interferes in his pronunciation. In this way, the term accent has been reflected on the video, the aspects of pronunciation that identify where this speaker is from, regional or socially are quite strong and highly recognizable.

Source:


Yule, G. (2016). The Study of Language. UK.: CUP. Ch. 18, 19. Page 240.

ENTRY #11-Chapters 18, 19 & 20.

The Study Of Language By Yule.

Chapter #18:
The Standard Language
It is an idealized variety because it has no specific region and it is associated with administrative, commercial and educational centers regardless of regions.
Accent And Dialect
Accent is related to aspects of pronunciation that identify where an individual speaker is from, regionally or socially, meanwhile dialect  is related to the features of grammar and vocabulary as well as aspects of pronunciation. 
Dialectology
It is the study of dialects that distinguishes between two different dialects of the same language (whose speakers can understand each other) and two different languages (whose speakers can’t understand each other).
Isoglosses And Dialect boundaries
An isogloss represents a boundary between the areas with different linguistic features. But when a number of isoglosses come together forming a more solid line, they indicate a dialect boundary instead of just an isogloss. 
The Dialect Continuum
At most dialect boundary areas, one regional dialect or language variety merges into another. So, we can see regional variation as existing along a dialect continuum rather than as having sharp breaks from one region to the next.
Bilingualism And Diglossia
Bilingualism tends to be a feature of the minority group in which these groups grow up in one linguistic community. On the other hand, diglossia is the acquisition of language that that is used locally and for everyday affairs, for example, the one learned in school and used for important matters. 
Language Planning
In countries that there are multiple dialects and languages it is needed that a language planning determinates which language should be used for official businesses. 
Pidgins And Creoles
A pidgin is a variety of language that for some practical purpose, such as trading among groups of people who had a lot of contact but who did not know each other’s language. So it would have no native speakers. However, when this variety develops beyond its role as a trade or contact language and becomes the first language of a social community, it is described as a creole. 

Chapter #19:
Sociolinguistics
It is used for the study of the relationship between language and society.
Social Dialects
It is concerned with speakers in towns and cities.
Education And Occupation
A personal idiolect refers to how we tend to sound like others with whom we share similar educational backgrounds and/or occupations. 
Social Markers
It is the different type of speeches that can be found between different social classes. 
Speech Style And Style-Shifting
Speech style is a social feature of language use, the formal style or “careful style” and the informal style or “casual style”. Meanwhile style-shifting is the movement from one style to another. 
Prestige
It is form as a way of explaining the direction in which certain individuals change their speech. Over prestige is when the change is in the direction of a form that is more frequent in the speech of those perceived to have higher social status. But covert prestige is the hidden status of a speech style as having positive value may explain why certain groups do not exhibit style-shifting to the same extent as other groups. 
Speech Accommodation
It is defined as our ability to modify our speech style toward or away from the perceived style of the person(s) we are talking to. Convergence: We adopt a speech style that attempts to reduce social distance and use forms that are similar to those used by the person we are talking to. Divergence: We use a speech style to emphasize social distance between others by using forms that are distinctly different. 
Register and Jargon
A register is a conventional way of using language that is appropriate in a specific context, which may be identified as situational (church), occupational (among lawyer) or topical (talking about language). But a jargon is special technical vocabulary associated with a specific area of work or interest. 
Slang
It is more typically used among young people outside the high-status groups. It is a “colloquial speech used in everyday terms. 
African American English
It is also known as Black English or Ebonics, AAE is a variety used by many African Americans in many regions in USA. Social barriers such as discrimination and segregation serve to create marked differences between social dialects. In the case of AAE, those different features have often been stigmatized as “bad” language, following a regular pattern whereby the social practices, especially speech, of dominated groups are treated as “abnormal” by those dominant groups who are in charge of defining “normal”. 

Chapter #20:
Culture
It refer to all the ideas and assumptions about the nature of things and people that we learn when we become members of social groups. 
Categories
It is a group with certain characteristics in common such as vocabulary. 
Kinship Terms
They are lexicalized words that are used to refer to people who are members of the same family. But each language differs on how they put the relatives in different positions. 
Time Concepts
They are abstract concepts that we inherit as a conceptual system that operates with amounts of time as common categories.
Linguistic Relativity
It studies how people perceive the world.
The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
This hypothesis focuses on how different languages classify each word either abstract, animate, male or female. For example, some languages or dialects classify clouds as animate objects while in English they are not. 
Snow
English does lexicalize some conceptual distinctions in the area of “snow”. We inherit a language used to report knowledge, so we would expect that language to influence the organization or our knowledge in some way. However, we also inherit to influence the ability to manipulate and be creative with that language in order to express our perceptions. 
Cognitive Categories
It is the analyzing cognition process or how people think from others cultures determine the characteristics of the world. 
Classifiers
They are normally used in connection with numbers to indicate type of things.
Social Categories
They are words that are used to distinguish how see the other person in our social context.
Address Terms
We use these words to create a concept of closeness by using specific vocabulary that is not used in a normal context (saying brother to another person that you do not know in order to get some money).
Gender
It is the distinction between male and female.
Gendered Words
They are words that are used only by men or women.
Gendered Speech
Many of the features in woman’s speech facilitate the exchange of turns, allowing others to speak, with the effect that interaction becomes a shared activity. Interaction among men appears to be organized in a more hierarchical way, with the right to speak or “having the floor” being treated as the goal. Men generally take longer turns at speaking and, in many social contexts may be the only ones allowed to talk.
One effect on the different styles developed by men and women is that certain features become very salient in cross-gender interactions. 
In the same-gender conversations, women produce more back-channels as indicators of listening and paying attention. The term back channel describes the use of words or sounds by listeners while someone else is speaking.

Source:

Yule, G. (2016). The Study of Language. UK.: CUP. Ch 18, 19, 20.

28 de septiembre de 2017

ENTRY #10 Discourse & Context in Language Teaching.

ENTRY #9 Thesis Statement

How to write a thesis statement?



  • What is a thesis statement?
  1. It' the single, specific claim that your essay supports.
  2. It includes a topic, a precise opinion and reasoning.
  • Parts of a thesis statement.
Both videos state that a thesis statement should include three pieces of information.
  1. The subject:  the topic of your essay.
  2. The precise opinion: the opinion of your essay.
  3. The blueprint of reasons: where you show your reader how you plan to argue and prove your opinion.
  • The thesis statement tells your reader:
  1. where you are going in your essay.
  2. how you plan in getting there.
  • When you are composing Thesis Statements, you need to know the following:
  1. Your topic: what your paper will deal with.
  2. Your claim: what you think about the topic.
  3. Reasons that support your claim: 3 points: a) Points at the beginning of the thesis statement. b) Points at the end of the thesis statement. c) Points listed in the sentences after the thesis statement. (You can also have a thesis with no points listed.) 
Sources: 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5HePQWodWiQ
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DfUkhdh8Z08

21 de septiembre de 2017

ENTRY #8 Literary Essay. Belonging to Segregated Minorities.



BELONGING TO SEGREGATED MINORITIES.

























SABOR, CLAUDIA.
ISFD N°18 LANGUAGE AND WRITTEN EXPRESSION IV.
PROFESSOR SAUBIDET, STELLA.

Belonging to segregated minorities.

   Elton John, Sting and Bono from U2 are recognized singers who are famous not only for their unique voices but also for their commitment to human rights. These artists are extremely concerned about people who belong to segregated minorities such as sexual, religious, political or even cultural ones. Furthermore, these singers are closely related to the organization Amnesty International, which is a global movement where people campaign for a world where human rights are enjoyed by all. Besides that, the three of them have captured these issues in the lyrics of their songs and in this way, they transmit awareness and encourage people to help people who belong to segregated minorities.

   In the song "Where the streets have no names" of U2, Bono reflects how people is isolated from the rest because of their belief, religion or income. "I want to tear down the walls, which hold me inside, I want to reach out" (Lines 3, 4, and 5). In Ireland, many cities are divided according to people wealth, values and mainly belief. As a result, knowing the address of a person in this country, you are able to know these facts. He promotes to stop isolating people who differs from the rest due to the standards established by society.

   Sting, in his song "An Englishman in New York" presents a harsh life of a gay author who moved from London to New York and reports his experiences as an outcast. This author, Quentin Crips defined himself as an "alien", "I'm an alien, I'm a legal alien, I'm an Englishman in New York." (Lines 9 and 10). Moreover, he was left aside for his customs and his homosexual lifestyle, "I don't drink coffee I take tea my dear. I like my toast done on the side. And you can hear it in my accent when I talk." (Lines 1, 2 and 3) he felt like he did not belong to the American society. For this reason, he suffered and he was ignored by other people, however, he tried to be happy and himself. "It takes a man to suffer ignorance and smile. Be yourself no matter what they say." (Lines 15 and 16). This lyrics reflect how people is been judged by their sexual orientation and how they are segregated.

   "All the girls love Alice" written by Elton John and Bernie Taupin represents a 16-year-old English lesbian who slept with married women, and also who was unaccepted by society. This young girl was seduced by naughty ladies, they said that they were in love with Alice but they forced her to keep the relationships as a secret due to the fact that they had husbands and their own families. "All the young girls love Alice Tender young Alice, they say If I give you my number Will you promised to call me? Wait till my husband's away." (Lines 9 to 13). Alice was found dead in the subway. "And it was only last Tuesday they found you in the subway dead." (Line 22) Once again, her sexual lifestyle set her apart from society.

   To conclude, these singers and their songs represent and reflect about the segregated minorities around the world. Differences among people make them feel like they do not belong to a group or even a place. However, the massage of these songs is transmitted and people should tolerate other people besides they have different thoughts.

Sources:
·                     http://ejaf.org/ 
·                     https://www.looktothestars.org/celebrity/elton-john
·                     https://www.britannica.com/biography/
·                     https://www.looktothestars.org/celebrity/bono
·                     http://www.sting.com/biography
·                     https://www.looktothestars.org/celebrity/sting
·                     https://www.amnesty.org/en/
·                     https://youtu.be/ea95D2VJ7OU
·                     https://youtu.be/3FsrPEUt2Dg
·                     https://youtu.be/d27gTrPPAyk